Saturday, May 13, 2017

Grand Central Atelier 2017 Salon

I will have two pieces on display in Grand Central Atelier's "2017 Salon" through May 21st, 2017.  This exhibition will display classical artwork realized in a traditional manner by artists from the Grand Central Atelier.  Please visit, www. for more information.

Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Process behind "Explore"

I recently have been taking some linear block-ins drawn from life and utilizing applied perspective, working from imagination and referencing master paintings to create narrative works.  This post describes the process I used to make my drawing "Explore", graphite on paper, 6.75” x 5.75” inches.

A summary of the narrative:

This vast city which once was the home of an advanced civilization still hosts relics of its former greatness.  A journey that was led by readings into the ancient world has led our protagonist to wondrous territories.  As she walks through the eternal city she collects flowers that are growing.  Transporting them to a new home.  

This piece began as a linear block-in at Grand Central Atelier last year.  I rendered the drawing by referencing master paintings, conceptualizing light on form and imagining some elements of the piece. 
This is the  linear block-in I drew from life during a two hour portrait sketch session at Grand Central Atelier.  I lost some information after I transferred the drawing in the next stage.  I will have to pay more attention to retaining the shapes in my block-in while I develop my modeling in the future. 

Modeling the Portrait

 I transferred the block-in to a piece of Artistico Fabriano paper, 140 lb. hot press paper and began modeling the portrait one form at a time.  I filled in my shadows and started modeling on the nose.  Since I only had my linear block-in to reference I utilized the concept of light decreasing as form turns away from the direction of the light to guide my modeling.  I still used strips of form to assist in simplifying the process of conceptualizing form while modeling the portrait.

 I thought of imagining the modeling on each form based on how much each area of the form turned towards or away from the direction of the light.  An exercise I have often practiced is to render a sphere from imagination.  This exercise requires an awareness of the structure of a form to determine how to describe the curve of form with value.  Imagining the modeling on different forms in the portrait, such as the nose, was just an extension of this exercise to differently shaped forms.

The Contour as a Guide

 Because a sphere is equally round in all directions, as seen in the equal curve of the contour, the sphere is modeled from imagination by turning the form away from the light most facing area equally in all directions until it meets the shadow edge. According to this concept the form becomes incrementally darker as areas turn more away from the light most facing area.

In the example for the ball of the nose, the structure of the nose was described by the shape of the contour in the linear block-in. The nose is similar to the shape of a sphere but slightly more angular, which is reflected in the more angular curve of the modeling of the nose.   Essentially the linear block-in described the structure of the form and I tried to follow the information it portrayed to imagine how to describe the volume of form with value while rendering the portrait.  From the outer contour I could imagine the interior contours that would relate to those outer contour tilts inside the form.  I proceeded modeling by sculpting the form away from the light most facing area by incrementally making planes darker with my pencil and responding to the angular plane changes on the nose.

Additional Master Painting References 

I also utilized referencing master paintings that portrayed a similar light orientation and  pose to the portrait I was drawing.  One of the portraits from Leonardo da Vinci's painting "The Virgin of the  Rocks" and a painting by Scott Waddell, seen here, were some of the paintings which were helpful to reference for modeling forms on the portrait.

 I proceeded one form at a time until I had modeled the entire portrait.  During the time period I was modeling I began thinking of  different narratives to include with the portrait and loosely sketched in some elements of a composition.

Composition studies
 I loosely had an idea of the portrait portraying a traveler.  To finalize a specific narrative idea and composition I made numerous small composition sketches to explore the potential of different background and foreground elements along with their placement.

 This is the composition sketch that I used to develop the final piece.  At the time of creating this piece I was very interested in the architecture and art in Italy.  I looked through various books on Italian architecture to research buildings I wanted to include in my drawing.  I really liked the curved elegance of the facade of the Santa Maria del Popolo, reworked by Bernini in the 17th century, because it reminded me of a fairy tale so I decided to base the building in my drawing off of its design.

Value Study
After settling on a composition I made a value study to reference while I rendered the background.  I took a picture of my drawing, which at that point only had the portrait rendered and printed it on a small scale to use for my value study.  Through working out value relationships on a small study first I could experiment with large changes that would be much more difficult to adjust while applying values with washes of diluted graphite on the final piece.

Reference Sketches

 Additionally I made studies of flowers and stems from life to use as a reference for those objects in my final piece.  I made use of these references generally for the shapes of the forms and the light effect revealed.  I did allow myself to bend and curve the stems and flowers more to adhere to a sweeping gesture I was striving for in the composition of my final piece.

Applied Perspective

 I  began drafting the perspective of the building in the background by loosely sketching the building based on the placement of the building in my composition sketch.  Even in this stage I loosely made sure my lines receding in space converged at the vanishing point in the face.  While making the initial block-in of the portrait I did not mark my vanishing point, so for this drawing I just imagined where the vanishing point might be vertically based upon how much it seemed like I was looking down on the features of the portrait.  It seemed that I was generally looking a bit down on the nose so I estimated that my vanishing point would be a little above the nose.

After loosely indicating the placement of the building I proceeded to use one point perspective in finalizing my lines and including more aspects of the building.  I ended up moving my vanishing point a bit more to the right so that the perspective would not appear as extreme.  This new vanishing point that I used is circled in red.  I drew one structure at a time, generally placing the larger structures first and then subdividing those spaces to determine the area and geometry for smaller structures.  Note, Douglas Flynt has an excellent technique for finding multiple points while drawing ellipseson his blog here, such as the ellipse for the window in this building, .

The arrow in the upper left hand corned of the drawing described the direction of the light source.  I drew a right angle from that direction to use as a guide for my triangle in making the angle of the shadows on the building.  As for the distance of the shadows, I based that upon the concept that the closer the light is to the object casting a shadow the longer the shadow will be.  Generally during midday the shadow on an object would be shorter as opposed to at dusk where longer shadows often occur.  I settled on a distance based on the time of day for the scene and just tried to be consistent in the drawing.

I utilized concepts of one point perspective described in G.A Storey's book the Theory and Practice of Perspective and have been taking perspective classes with Anthony Baus in the core program at Grand Central Atelier which has enhanced my understanding of applied perspective.

 I transferred my drawing of the building to the final piece by first placing glacine paper over my portrait to prevent the smearing of graphite.  I traced my drawing of the building which also included an outline of the portrait onto tracing paper then lined up the outline of the portrait to transfer the drawing at the same orientation.

 Once the building was transferred I darkened my lines with graphite pencil.  I did this because I was worried about losing the boundaries of the building while applying washes of diluted graphite powder to the background.  In hindsight, the lines were so dark that they ended up standing out too much to fade into the background and I had  to do much tapping with my kneaded eraser to try to create a more atmospheric effect for the background.

Also, in this stage before applying washes to the background I included drawing for additional landscape elements.  I drew the shirt, backpack and books by using myself and a mirror to draw those objects at a similar orientation to the portrait.

Applying Washes to the Background

 In the interest of saving time I used a process of applying washes of graphite powder diluted with water to render the background and foreground elements.  A wash also allowed for some variation in quality distinctive from the focal point of the portrait.  For me, diluted graphite is more forgiving than watercolor and can be slightly lightened with a kneaded eraser and can be refined with the point of a graphite pencil to adjust mistakes made in the wash process.  Before applying washes of tone to the background I had set up a tonal border with pencil surrounding the contour of the portrait to prevent the spread of diluted graphite into the portrait.  I merged this boundary together using pencil in the final refinements for the background.

I began the wash process by working from light to dark.  I wanted to directly achieve the value in a given area that was in my value study so for the five values seen in this early stage of the background I only applied about five washes of tone.

 With each new darker area of the background I applied subsequent washes of diluted graphite powder.  After this stage I refined the background and foreground mostly with the point of a graphite pencil for the benefit of added control.

Additional References

The Santa Maria del Popolo was the basis for the design of the building in my drawing.

 I referenced the atmospheric tonal range of the buildings in the background in this painting to determine how compressed (close in tone) the values in the background could be.

I referenced some of the landscape elements in the paintings by Bouguereau above.  Such as the foreground grass in the painting, Rest on the left and the sky in the painting, Juenes Bohemiennes on the right.  Additionally I referenced the flowers in the Leonardo Da Vinci and Verrochio collaborative painting, The Madonna and Child with Angels.  Many more classical paintings were referenced to assist in rendering other elements such as the shirt, hair and other aspects of the portrait and background.

In the past I have seen classical artists from Leonardo da Vinci in the 15th century to Anthony van Dyck in the 17th century make use of linear drawings from life as references for paintings so I wanted to give the process a try.  Creating a portrait from initially starting with only a linear block-in from life as a reference showed me more about how a piece can be developed beyond that stage without the use of a live model and just studying master paintings along with studies of nature.

Sunday, November 13, 2016

Winter Small Works Show

Eleventh Street Arts presents the "Winter Small Works Show" featuring classical artwork by many artists from the Water Street and Grand Central Atelier.  I am honored to have a piece in this wonderful exhibition.

A summary of this piece's narrative:
The potential of following a unique vision is suggested by the subject's determined expression, collection of books and extending background.

The opening reception is November 17th, 2016   6 -9 pm.  

This exhibition is on view through January 20th, 2017 by appointment.  Please visit,

Thursday, August 11, 2016

Now Teaching

This fall I will be an instructor at the Teaching Studios of Art in Long Island, NY.  Including classes in Art Lessons for Children and Portfolio Prep and Foundations for Teens and Adults.  For more information, please view the Teaching Studios of Art website,

Saturday, May 28, 2016

First Year at Grand Central Atelier

As far as I got on my cast painting of Antiochus III by the end of the first year at Grand Central Atelier.  I learned a lot this year.

My experience at Grand Central Atelier has been better than I could have imagined before I moved to New York.  GCA, including its core program and workshops/part-time classes I have taken there, is by far the best school for classical art education that I have ever studied at.  Not only do the instructors continually provide valuable insights into how I can develop my technique and problem solving skills but furthermore I am surrounded by a positive environment of students who are constantly improving and are willing to share advice.  Also there are so many amazing museums and exhibitions showcasing the genre of classical painting that I have desire to align my work with and viewing those pieces in person has provided invaluable learning experiences that will inform my art for the rest of my career.  I have found the art community at GCA and in New York to consistently re-iterate the fact that progress is limitless.

 Some of the portrait drawings I worked on this year at school are shown below.

 Santiago from the May afternoon pose

I have been trying to improve on gaining a stronger sense of the larger overall form of the head while working to incorporate smaller sub-forms, such as the eyes, in their proper relation to the portrait.  My teachers have been very helpful in making me aware of ways to appreciate and focus on this aspect of rendering.  Paying more attention to the larger form of the portrait at first also has made it more effective and easier to incorporate the sub-forms. 

From the April afternoon pose (with added background and drapery)
While it is engaging to render, I have found that significant improvement lies in much comparison of my drawing in its relation to the subject, both in conceptual form and visual evaluation terms.  I have a tendency to constantly want to have my pencil to the paper or brush to the canvas.  Scott Waddell's advice this year was very helpful in organizing my working method to create better results. Getting into the habit of taking more time to evaluate my decisions has assisted in organizing the sub-forms to the larger overall forms in my portraits.  I noticed that the more I question whether I am getting closer to my goal the better I can see changes that need to be made.

Santiago from the March afternoon pose

 Thanks so much to the help from all of my teachers and peer students.  This year I am fortunate to have benefited from the teaching and advice from many of the instructors at Grand Central Atelier including, Scott Waddell, Patrick Byrnes, Devin Cecil-Wishing, Justin Wood, Brendan Johnston, Katie Whipple, Ted Minoff, Tony Curanaj, Josh LaRock, Jacob Collins, Colleen Barry, Will St. John, Zoe Dufour, Charlie Mostow, Sally Fama Cochrane and Katie Engberg.

I am very much looking forward to what awaits in my second year at Grand Central Atelier.

Thanks again to all who supported my art material fundraiser for school (The Arthur Haywood Education Initiative).  I am very fortunate to be learning so much with the supplies.

Saturday, May 14, 2016


I have most recently been working on a cast painting of "L'inconnoue de la Siene"(the unknown woman of Siene) at Grand Central Atelier.   The alleged story behind this cast is that the mask of this young woman was casted from a drowned individual in the Nineteenth century because her face and expression was captivating and beautiful.

Radio Lab has a very intriguing podcast on the history of this cast here.  The mask became popular throughout Europe in the Nineteenth century and was later used as the basis for the model of the CPR doll.  The podcast is interesting as it refers to the relevance of this young woman who drowned to later becoming the model for mouth to mouth resuscitation.  Generations of people use the CPR doll to practice relieving individuals from drowning and in a sense bring them back to life.

In a similar sense, the approach to painting and drawing taught at Grand Central Atelier focuses on creating believable form to recreate the appearance of individuals.  I titled this painting "Believe" as it was my attempt to make this young girl believable again.  Although I did not nearly meet my goal with this painting I did learn a lot during the process.

I tried to believe in the dimension and reality of each form as I created it and worked my way throughout the portrait form by form.

In my opinion, the more believable the subject of my painting can be the more deeply the translation of specific emotions can be conveyed to communicate specific messages in my art.  Although this painting is just a study the lessons learned from this exercise will allow me to more effectively communicate with my art when I create narrative paintings.

This painting along with a few more of my pieces will be on display as part of  Grand Central Atelier's End of Year Student Show, May 20th 6-9pm and May 21st and 22nd 12 -6 pm.  Located at 46-06 11th Street, Long Island City, NY 11101.  

Lessons Learned

I did learn a lot of new beneficial practices while working on this painting from my instructors and peer students at Grand Central Atelier.  I learned of the benefits of using little bit of a leveling medium, such as Epoxide oil gel, to reduce the amount of textured paint strokes that can accumulate while continuing to adjust paint during the wet into wet painting process. I also learned that when too much paint accumulates on my painting it can be helpful to take a brush with less paint on it and tap into the area to remove the excess paint before trying to more carefully reapply a more specific gradation.  It was helpul to use a thicker amount of paint on this piece to be able to manipulate the paint longer without removing paint down to the surface of the linen.  The more I practiced I tried to get a feel for applying enough paint for it to glide over the weave of the linen.  I noticed that the texture of relatively thick paint initially applied is naturally smooth and when paint is applied so thinly that it is seen between the weave of the linen as opposed to on top of it, the irregularity of the surface creates a texture that is not smooth.

Also, a value painting workshop that us first year students had with Tony Curanaj allowed me to learn more about paint handling.  I learned that while much of making gradations with paint initially involves carefully placing progressions of tone with distinct values of paint that describe a curve of form, the gradation can be refined by carefully dragging those specific tones into each other.  Even though this process can help , I still have to be careful to not completely remove needed paint while blending.  As far as reworking and seams go, I still have yet to figure that out, as my painting is filled with seams.  But while reworking I did get a glimpse into how much refinements can be guided by a feel for what to expect the paint to look like after it has dried and been varnished.  Hopefully if I can be more careful during my initial pass and during reworking on my next painting I will improve.

Saturday, February 27, 2016

Cast Painting at Grand Central Atelier

 I have been learning about many ways to approach modeling form in paint at Grand Central Atelier.  Since I started painting at GCA my development has been significantly aided by help from my cast painting teachers, Patrick Byrnes, Devin Cecil-Wishing and Justin Wood in addition to beneficial advice from my peer students and some helpful critiques from Scott Waddell, Will St. John and Brendan Johnston.  My teachers and peer students have so much insight they offer and I feel that I am just tapping into realization of many aspects of form painting.  I still have very far to improve with my painting abilities but this post describes some things I have learned in my development so far.

I begin the painting process by making a block-in drawing that describes linear boundaries of information on the cast.  Making a block-in for a painting is no different than creating a block-in for a drawing except that with the added difficulty of changing areas of wet and dry paint the consequences of adjusting mistakes in the block-in while painting can be more severe. So I pay close attention to specificity in the shapes while blocking-in.

The relationship between the block-in and modeling is symbiotic.  The block-in holds the modeling like the shell of an egg.  As a result, the modeling can never become more dimensional than the shape it is confined to.

Knowing that the shapes of the block-in may become slightly adjusted during the painting process I usually leave the lines in my block-ins with a slight width to make the transferred drawing on the linen easier to interpret.  With a slight width in line I also can have the opportunity to view the form boundaries as existing somewhere within that thickness of line, which gives me flexibility to determine the final shape of each form through form analysis.  This flexibility in the lines of the block-in is helpful for me because, it can be difficult to model form while being confined to the rigid boundaries of a block-in that was not completed with as in-depth form analysis that takes place during the modeling process.

Value Study

Before approaching the actual painting I create a small value study to use as an aid in managing the large relationships on the form while I later model the form in small sections.  The value study acts as a map for the value range in the cast.  By referencing the relationships in the value study I can gain a better sense of which area of my value range I should be in while working on individual parts of the cast


The block-in is transferred to the painting surface using an oil transfer.  This process is described on Doug Flynt's blog here.  After the block-in is transferred to the surface of the linen that I paint on, Art Fix, I complete an under-painting using paint thinned with odorless mineral spirits.  The under-painting provides coverage of the light value of the surface to create a layer that is more similar to the final values of the form painting.  If parts of the final form painting are thinner, the under-painting that is similar in value will show through instead of the light color of the ground.

I personally have preferred to keep the under-painting in a looser state to be able to clearly isolate the gradations of my modeling to make it easier for me to evaluate.  I have tried working on under-paintings that were closer in value and handling to the final form pass and struggled with evaluating the gradations as I painted because the final pass was so similar to the values of the under-painting.  Although, I imagine if I had a stronger ability to retain the conception of the overall form this difficulty of  isolating each parts gradation would not be such a struggle.  For me, the gradation is one the most difficult aspects of form to describe in suggesting the three dimensionality form.  Since I am still developing in comprehending form, I find it easier to retain the conception of one slice of a form at a time that I can easily evaluate. I currently have found it easier to manage modeling form by building the relationship of forms through focusing on developing them in smaller strip like sections at first.

Modeling Form

Form modeling in paint is essentially just drawing with paint.  The logic of light on form does not change and modeling proceeds in the same way as with graphite except with the added difficulty of controlling gradations in paint.  I proceed by creating a strip of form that suggests the curve of form as it gets lighter on its path to facing more towards the light.  It is beneficial to begin in an area that contains most of the value range on the cast, such as the darkness of a shadow to the lightness of a section of form that is most facing the light.  Although in the instance of the above image I made the mistake of  not beginning in the area where the form turned most towards the light, which made it difficult to manage relationships in the cast during the process of painting it.

For me, it easier to distinguish the modeling from the looser under-painting as if the form is a shell.  I often even imagine running my finger underneath the strip of form that I create in my paintings to see if it feels like the form should bulge out in certain areas to make the fullness of form closer to the roundness of form on the actual cast.

I create gradations in paint by dabbing a progression of values next to each other.  In areas of form that contain a broader planes I lean towards applying larger strokes of paint instead of smaller dabs.  My goal is to place small sections of value that are progressively lighter than the preceding stroke to suggest a subtle turning of form toward the light.  For each strip I often begin at the shadow and slowly crawl up the hill of form one slight change in value at a time to create a gradation that suggests the curvature of form on the cast.  I try to use thick enough paint that shows a solid value of paint with each stroke.  Due to the wet into wet nature of oil painting I can also utilize how similar values of paint blend into each other to create intermediary values but in doing so I have to remain focused on creating a specific gradation of form.  The intermediary values that blending can create are not always the specific values that describe the form.  If I do not pay attention to the effect that wet into wet blending is creating I can easily lose a specific gradation of form.

I find it important to reflect on the form consequences of each paint stroke.  I have often blended mindlessly and pretty much just blended past the values that I wanted without paying attention.   I try to remain conscious of the effect of each added value to the turning of form.  With painting it is all a matter of making precise and deliberate decisions.  Once paint is on the surface adding more paint continues to build up the surface and can make it more difficult to easily adjust the values of paint.  I have found it helpful to preface each brush stroke with the question of whether to turn parts of the form towards or away from the light.  Choosing whether to make the stroke lighter or darker. Then I just try to push the form to where I intend it to turn to. 

As the painting progresses the shell of form expands one form at a time, just as in the drawing process.  In the image above the top left form on the brow is isolated because it is not yet painted.  Because gradations in paint are much easier to adjust while wet than when dry I have been taught about the benefit of completing an entire form during each painting session to avoid significant seams in the middle of forms.  I also use a soft brush to drag the paint along the border of the boundary of each form that I complete during a session to provide a valley for the paint during the next session to attach to without the harsh border of thick paint.

With the top left form of the brow painted in I am still progressing with the painting of the eye.  An image of the completed painting is below.


I have learned from Devin Cecil-Wishing that brushes can be shaped differently to make it easier to adjust gradations in specific ways. I have mostly been using cheap synthetic oil painting brushes from Blick Art Supplies that can get a sharp point and have substantial spring to assist in controlling each paint stroke or dab of paint.

 Pointy brushes can be helpful for adjusting tiny areas of a gradation that require more precise control.

These same brushes can be patted down to create a flatter surface area that can be helpful in adjusting larger areas of a gradation.  I have found that the size of brush to use is in relation to the size of the form and the area of a gradation that is being modeled.  Devin Cecil-Wishing has also taught me the benefits of using multiple brushes for lighter and darker areas to limit the contamination of values that occurs during wet into wet painting.

A large very soft brush can be helpful as a final touch to a section of modeling to blend away surface ridges of paint that have accumulated in the modeling process.  I usually only use a large brush at the very end of a painting session for that purpose.  Even while trying to remove those surface ridges at the end I remain conscious of how I may be adjusting the form and try to keep the form in mind as I blend.

During the modeling process I initially try to place each value of paint in the gradation as specifically as I can and then adjust the form by adding more paint to alter the value.  When I find that adding more paint leads to significant building up in the thickness of paint I often use a brush with little or no paint on it to try to bend the values into where I want them to be on the form.  Since I still don't have very much control of paint, I have found that changes in adjusting wet paint often requires some back and forth work of adding paint and blending to bend the form to a desired curve.

 Paint Use

 My teachers have emphasized the importance of using a substantial amount of paint to make it easier to manipulate.  I have found that with more paint on the surface I can adjust my gradations while limiting the amount of paint that I am taking off of the surface with my brush while making adjustments.  Painting too thinly was a serious issue that I especially struggled with on my first cast painting of the ear. I was painting so thinly that the color of the white ground significantly showed through my painted layer and created a surface that was very uneven.  Also, since I did not do an under-painting for my first painting of the ear the value of the white ground was drastically different from the values in the form pass which made the unevenness even worse than if I painted thinly on an under-painting.

 I am still struggling with controlling paint but these materials and techniques that I have been learning are helping out.  I am striving to create form in paint that suggests very specific curves of form and am still struggling with controlling the evenness of my gradations.  I often get distracted by the desire of creating a smooth surface and lose a tactile sensibility to the form modeling.  I have found it more helpful to remain focused on gaining a tactile sensation of creating from that I can believe is three dimensional and making the best decisions I can with my painting materials to sculpt the form to that effect.   When I am in that state of mind I find that as a result my form modeling becomes smoother by being more specific to the curvature of the form.

Painting Process

Value Study



 After initially completing the painting form by form I selected a few areas to improve upon during the reworking stage.  One area that I wanted to adjust was the overall roundness of the chin.  I wanted to turn the bottom planes of the chin more away from the light so that it would be more opposed to the direction of the more light facing planes on the upper chin.  I have found it important to determine exactly how I want to adjust sections of form before beginning the reworking stage to make it easier to proceed with focus.

I have been taught to begin the reworking stage by applying a small amount of retouch varnish over the entire painting to bring back the gloss from areas of the painting that have sunken in.  When reworking, I add just a bit of Oleogel to my paint to slightly thin my paint where necessary. But in areas that require significant lightening or changes I end up using paint without medium.  In areas that require significant changes in reworking, such as the chin, I ended up repainting the entire form to provide a more unified surface quality.  I proceeded by selecting a section of form to adjust and tried my best to make decisions based on how I want the form to change as opposed to making rapid decisions based on pure optical judgements of value.  By validating my decisions with form analysis I can proceed with the same amount of care in trying to create specific gradations of form as I had in the initial form painting.  Being that specificity of form is an important goal for me, I try not to lose that focus while reworking.

I learned a lot while making the cast painting shown above.  I have so much more to learn as I progress with my current cast paintings at Grand Central Atelier.

Sunday, February 21, 2016

Copying at Metropolitan Museum of Art

Classical painting is a visual language in and unto itself and requires me to study how to interpret and design visual information.  To become better acquainted with the creation of classical art I have been studying from masterpieces at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the past few months.

After William Bouguereau's painting Breton Brother and Sister

After Carpeuax's sculpture Ugolino and His Sons
While I find viewing artwork that I admire very helpful, I also often find that I look more carefully while copying from pieces of artwork.  These studies have enhanced my understanding of representing form and inform aesthetic choices that I make in my studies at Grand Central Atelier. Studying from paintings allows me to study paint application and form modeling while many of the sculptures I have copied provide an opportunity to select viewpoints of poses that I find engaging and display crucial choices made to model forms in a way that is both realistic and beautifully expressive. 
After Randolf Roger's sculpture Nydia, the Blind Flower Girl of Pompeii
After Domenico Pieratti's sculpture The Youthful Saint John the Baptist (with an imagined background)
Furthermore, these copies provide a platform for ideas of the type of art that I am interested in creating.  With a better realization of what makes me connect with amazing works of art I can strive towards aligning my work towards the aesthetic of the works that I admire.